Fertilization

Spraying with disinfectant

Prevention from hampur moth (Ectomyetois ceratoniae)  in Azerbaijan.

Pest’s growth cycle

Insect turns into mature individual for 25-30 days. About 80 percent of fruit isn’t useful for sale in the pest’s massive damaged gardens. Because the fruit is damaged both directly  and by the effects of second-class fungus and bacterial organism which enters from insect’s hole.

Larvae coming out of fruit begin damage inside of fruit in the second and third stage of evaluation. This larvae  is distinguished from others with its unique light red color. As the air temperature rises, the larvae and the pups develop into mature individuals (moths) and result in second-generation damage to farms.

This moth (Ectomyetois ceratoniae) is one the most serious pests of pomegranate in Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq and Azerbaijan. This insect also damages other fruit products such as fig, palm, pistachio, almond and citrus fruits. The moth breeding 3-5 times per year depending on location damages product. The damage of first generation begin with an egg laying of female individual to flower mallow. Insect enters the fruit at the bottom of calyx and fruit often begins to lose its color after second fungal infection.


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Traditional strive methods

The most important and general method to protect gardens is cleaning them from wintering insects, because the main reason of infection is insecticide in the fruits on the trees and wintering insects on the surface of soil.  That’s why  after harvest, it is necessary to clean the trees or the soil from the infected fruits and deposit them into plastic bags. Farmers operating in some areas break down old damaged parts of flower in calyx and don’t leave enough place for the next generation to lay eggs during season. 


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Control over ecotomyetois ceratoniae

Insemination  of insecticides throughout  the season isn’t ecologically and economically efficient. By establishing pheromone traps in the fruit gardens it is possible to predict the time of medicine spraying as well as to control formation and flying of male individuals. From these traps comes a smell specific for female individuals when they crossbreed. This scent helps male to find female in any environment even if it is not felt by people. A male individual usually appears before, after or during the period when female is born. That’s the reason when female individuals begin to fly, males are always around. We can refer to pheromone traps used in this purpose triangle papers or plastic traps having tricky paper or rubber bulbs in them or deodorant feeds containing pheromone. Deceptive pheromone feeds considered to be highly sensitive, because pheromone is volatile and you need to change it once 4-5 weeks as well as protect from direct sunlight and heat. It is recommended to store pheromone that are not used in refrigerators or freezers to prolong its expiry date. Pheromone traps can even destroy nicotine in a small amount, so farmers who use tobacco products wash their hands before touching these traps.

Medication spraying

The right time for spraying is determined according to situations of traps, but the most effective program consists of slaughtering medicine against the first generation of insects within 5-7 days after the first male individual trapped. Because of this fact use long-termed and effective insecticides for the larvae and the mature individuals. When the number of male individuals  falling into the pheromone traps is at peak, the time is determined  for the second and subsequent generations to be dosed with medicine. The most durable medicine against ecotomyetois ceratoniae is chlorantraniliprole sold as Coragen SC or EC in Azerbaijan, because this medicine targets the eggs and larvae belonging to scaly winged family, has very little destructive effect on the useful  insects and parasites.

Although Spinosad products, for example, spintor is a right choice CPDC (comprehensive pest and disease control) program, you need to use this medicine more carefully in the stage when bees are more active. If it’s not possible to get these medicines, insecticides  such as lambda sihalotrine known as Karate R EC or bifentrine sold under the trademark KunFu EC also can be used. It is also recommended to use insecticides such as “Emamektin Benzaote” and “Bellis”.

It’s not a secret that the technique of spraying  of medicine plays an important role in protecting pomegranate against pests. Unfortunately, inadequate way of medicine spraying results serious loss of harvest.

It’s not a secret that the technique of spraying  of medicine plays an important role in protecting pomegranate against pests. Unfortunately, inadequate way of medicine spraying results serious loss of harvest. Some techniques brought to Azerbaijan aren’t suitable to use in pomegranate gardens. The most ideal technique for spraying of medicine is the machine shown in the pictures. If you look attentively at the machines you can see that the number of nipples is increased  and raised to maximum height with the help of kronstein. It creates in its turn conditions for medicine spraying  of pomegranates located in high positions.

Taking into consideration that pomegranate trees are at most 2.5-3 meter in height, the engine weakness of most machines can’t create enough pressure to reach this height.

It’s acceptable to have a tractor speed of 5 km per hour during spraying of medicine. The pressure should be 15-20 bars depending  on the medicine.

As it is known, pets affect pomegranate from its crown. Naturally, as the pomegranate matures its crown lowers down. To increase effective impact of medicine,brackets mounted to the lower part of machine are erupted the medicine from bottom to the top. This process provides an all-round protection of pomegranate

One of the most common problems in pomegranate gardens is the struggle with weeds. This problem is most commonly seen in gardens with drip irrigation systems. The water hoses made between the trees prevent  agro-technical care, which in its turn leads to the rapid growth of weeds. A fertile conditions are created for pests and insects in case of uncleaning from these weeds. Pests easily pass from the ground and weeds to the trees

In order to prevent from this danger it is recommended to use medicines of various companies. We want to draw your attention to the technique made for spraying of medicine taking into account that the medicine can cause trees dry out

The number of pistols erupting the medicine increased to four by the help of special mounts, and this helped to make economy a tractor and a vat. The technique which is capable to spray  two rows was made to be able to spray four rows. Plastic hoods specially made for the ends of medicinal pistols prevent medicine from splashing to the trees and eliminate only necessary plants.

This method prevent from spreading of weeds for 20-25 days. The above mentioned problem can be completely solved if the process is repeated three times.

One of the mistakes made while spraying the medicine is to empty them directly into the droppers of boxes. Consequently, the medicine doesn’t mix with water which results ineffectiveness of fight against pests. Below we will show you the correct way of preparing of medicines. Medicines should not be spilled directly into the vat, regardless of whether they are liquid  or powdered. The containers of 100 liters volume are filled with water up to half. The person preparing medicine should open and spill the medicine into the water carefully. Then he must knead it very well within some minutes. The vat must be filled up to half when this process is over. The inside equipment must continue its work unceasingly during mixing process. Then the ready liquid must be spilled into the vat completely. After this the vat must mix the inside liquid by the help of mixing equipment. The medicines made in this way kills all pests effectively.

Note: the person preparing the medicine must wear plastic gloves, mask and special glasses to follow all security rules.